بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم، وصلى الله وسلم على رسوله الأمين وعلى آله وأصحابه، أما بعد.

The Author said: “Furthermore, water is of four types:

  • Not disliked pure, purifier; which is absolute water
  • Disliked pure purifier; which is water heated by the sun
  • Pure but not a purifier which is used water and water that has been changed by mixing a pure substance with it
  • Impure water which is (water) that an impure substance fell in and (the water) is less than two Qullahs or it is two Qullahs that have changed.”

 

*After naming the types of water in general (the seven types), the author continues that these types can be further divided into four groups.

*Absolute water  is water that has remained in its natural state without change, like the seven types mentioned before.  This water is pure and a purifier meaning pure in its self, and a purifier of other things i.e. one can perform Wudhu / Ghusl with it, and can remove impurities by it.

*Water heated by the sun is disliked according to the Shafi’i math-hab, with certain conditions which they themselves differed in. From the points they differed in is if the water was heated in a cold country is it still disliked as it is in a hot country? Or if it was heated then got cold is it still disliked even after it cooling down? Or if it was heated in other than metal ie metal and copper utensils, is it disliked ? And is it okay to wash clothes with or is it just disliked when used on the body? They all (the Shafi’i math-hab) agreed , however, that water heated in the lakes etc. is not disliked.

*(According to the Shafi’i math-hab) this type of water (heated by the sun) being a disliked, pure, purifier means that it is better to stay away from it, and not to use it, but if it was used then it does uplift the hadath and it removes the impurity.

The reason behind this strange ruling is that some narrations show that this type of water gives leprosy, like what was narrated by Ad-Darukutni and Al-bayhaqi on the authority of ‘Aisha رضي الله عنها that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited using water heated by the sun, and said it brings about leprosy. Also there is what was narrated by Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

“Whoever washes with water heated by the sun, then gets leprosy, let him not blame except himself.”

They (the Shafi’i math-hab) also quoted what was narrated about Umar رضي الله عنه that he disliked this water. These evidences, however, are very weak, rather some may even reach the level of fabrication. Also saying that this water is just disliked is against the rules of the Shari’ah since if it is correct that this water brings about leprosy then the ruling should be that it is Haram to use, not just disliked. There is no doubt that this water is not disliked and even Al Nawawi, who is from the shafi’i scholars said:

“Its being disliked has no evidence to rely on.”

*Used water is the water already used to uplift a hadath or water already used to remove an impurity (najaasah) according to the Shafi’i math-hab, and water previously used for worship according to the Hanafi mathhab. This water is just pure, meaning it is pure in its own self, but not a purifier of other things. This opinion however is incorrect and there is no evidence from the Book of Allaah, or the Sunnah, that there is a type of water which is pure but not a purifier. The evidences in support of this opinion do not show that the water ceases to be a purifier. For example, the hadith containing the prohibition for one to put his hands in the water utensil before washing them, and the hadith where the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited the one who is Junub (ritually impure) to wash in stagnant water are their evidences but in actuality they do not provide evidence for their position.

*Water changed by a pure substance, according to the Shafi’i math-hab, is water that has been changed dramatically by any pure substance, like milk, which fell in it. According to the Hanbali math-hab any change in the smell, taste or colour of the water, by any pure substance makes it a pure, non purifier. What is correct is that if this change to the water changes its name to other than that of ‘water’, (e.g. tea/coffee) then it is no longer water and it is not permissible to purify with it. But if this change didn’t change the name of the water, and it is still called water then it is still pure and a purifier. The opinion of Shaikh Saleh Al-Fawzan in this is that if the pure thing that changed the water overpowered the water in the mixture then it (the mixture) is no longer a purifier, if not then it is still a purifier. This is also the opinion of the Hanafi math-hab.

*The impure water, according to the author who is on the way of the Shafi’i math-hab, is any water lesser than two Qullahs that an impure substance fell in or is equal to or greater than two Qullah but the impurity changed the taste, smell or colour. A Qullah is a jar of water, some said equal to around 200 litres, some said less and some said more. The evidence for greater than two Qullahs being pure is the hadith of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم :

“If the water is two Qullahs then it doesn’t carry filth.”

However this doesn’t mean that if it was lesser than this amount that it must carry filth. All it means is that two Qullahs water are usually enough to withstand the impurity unlike lesser amounts. The correct opinion is that whether the water is more or less than two Qullahs, it does not become impure unless the smell, taste or colour change. This is the opinon of the Malikiyyah, Shaikh-ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, Al Albani and others.

.هذا والله أعلم وصلى الله وسلم على رسوله.